Аntiquity

History

BONONIA

Bononiya is the ancient name of Vidin. The town was established at the end of I and the beginning of the II century AD. Hr. a castle and a road station in the province Miziya.Nay likely this place was located supporting military unit occupied with the construction of the Danube time ensuring protection of the Danube border.

After the division of the province Mizia in 86g. AD Bononiya remained within the Upper Misia and is given to the urban area of Ratsiaria that led to the main city. In II-III century it marks the zenith. Its port served the Danube military and commercial fleet. At the end of III and the beginning of the IV century Bononiya already significant settlement with recessed area and a solid defense system, making it equates to major urban centers of the newly formed province Coastal Dacia. Fortification system of the city is known for the archaeological study of the parts of the fortress wall, allowing its tracing and identification of the fortified area. His plan represents almost rectangle. Dalzhinatana north wall is about 365 meters and to the west - about 600 meters. So far revealed nine the number of adjacent round towers with a diameter of 19 m and a wall thickness of 3.70 meters. Ancient Bononoya existed until 586g., When it was conquered by the Avars and devastated.

 

RATSIARIA

Roman fortress-city "Ratsiaria" with. Archar common. Municipality. Ratsiaria (Latin Colonia Ulpia Ratiaria) was a great city of the Danube limes. Located 27 km southeast of Vidin 28 km west of Lom, about a kilometer east of the present village Archar, District Vidin, in Fort. It was founded during the Roman Empire. At that time there lived a Roman patricians (aristocrats) and nearby Bononia (today District) was based only a small military unit. Colonia Ulpia Trairana Ratiaria is first mentioned in an inscription of 125, the most accurately dated earlier written statement, mentioning his name. When life has arisen in this place we do not know for sure. Latenskata separate artifacts from the era show that the area was inhabited before the Roman conquest. When drilling excavations carried out so far in Ratsiaria, however, no evidence of pre-Roman settlement. It is known that this settlement was located in Moesians, one of the most important tribes in northern Bulgaria, lived here, and BC. An important turning point in the history of Ratsiaria years of Vespasian (69- 79). There often are silver and even gold coins from that time. The rise of the city during this period is related to the major concerns of Vespasian in the fortification of the Lower Danube border and organizing of the Danube fleet. An interesting fact is that only the names of two of the settlements on the Lower Danube limes lead prozihoda from concepts related to river work: Ratiaria and Sexaginta Prista (naval station). Name Ratiaria displayed or ratis "raft" or ratiaria "type of ship". The name of the village determines its original meaning as a convenient location for shipping on the Danube and crossing the river. It is reported that around the end of the 1st century in Ratsiaria accommodated for a while Flavia legion and auxiliary troops. To the period 2c. AD concern and no small number of indexes, which can make some observations on the nature of the population: the civilian population of military and non-military proizhod- Italians and Peregrine. Special place occupied by civilian settlers Italic origin, and members of the municipal aristocracy of eastern origin. Many opportunities there were for agriculture. Outdoor sign of rare deity Pales brought by Italic settlers, revealed active agricultural deynost.Otkrivanite epitaphs around various locations throughout the Ratsiaria inscriptions belonging to members of the urban nobility, noted in essence existence of different land mansions. These were important centers of agricultural production, possessions of members of the urban nobility. Some of them were veterans. Some portion have been processed and slaves. Ratsiaria develops and large center of handicraft production. The city and its environs originate hundreds of objects (goldsmith, bronze casting, etc.). Gold and silver ornaments originating from Ratsiaria show shodtsva a number of techniques and ways of decorating with similar objects found in other parts of northern Bulgaria. From Ratsiaria come pretty objects of glass, bone, not a few gems and cameos, but whether they are imported or produced outside of the place could hardly be argued in the present state of research on these materials. The significant level of agricultural and artisanal production in Ratsiaria and neynaa territory and favorable location and crossroads which governed its importance as a commercial center. In the city passed road along the Danube: from Singidunum along the river to the delta of the river, and thence along the Black Sea coast all the way to Byzantium. In Ratsiyaariya treading natural ways of Trajan Dacia to Italy, not only passenger communications but transport of goods. Here was transported and salt Sedmigrad region. Social relations in Ratsiaria not make any exceptions to the social development of other cities in the Roman provinces (in II- IIIc.). There are no data for a small number of slaves employed in agriculture. The city is ruled by the urban aristocracy. In II- IIIc. Ratsiaria stands not only as the most significant center in the Eastern districts of Upper Misia, but throughout Northern Bulgaria. Proof of development of the city are found in excavated architectural fragments skalpturi, tombstones and inscriptions sarkofazi. Prominent among the sculptural works in Ratsiaria occupies a marble statue of resting Herakals height 0, 41 m. Sculptural monuments Ratsiaria are very delicate, distinguished by high artistic qualities and reveal well developed and advanced school. Plus a significant number of reserved works, which is not attested elsewhere in northern Bulgaria understand how big it was of importance along Ratsiaria as an artistic center. From the late ancient buildings partially excavated two deserve greater attention: in one opened farm implements, clay lamps, household items, coins from the mid-6c. And the other is part of a monumental building with mosaic floors and is likely to be Christian basilica. Ratsiaria water has come from the big fountain in the area. Zhidovets of 6-7 km to the southwest. Traces of water mains are found all along the road between this area and the village. Systematization of the famous on the history and material culture of the Roman town Ulpia Ratsiaria shows his greatest bearing on as the most extensive urban center not only in the countryside but also in the whole of the Lower Danube basin.

 

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